The sectoral approach is an aggregation of the manufacturing industries according to technological intensity (R&D expenditure/value added) and based on the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE) at 2-digit level. The level of R&D intensity served as a criterion of classification of economic sectors into high-technology, medium high-technology, medium low-technology and low-technology industries.
Services are mainly aggregated into knowledge-intensive services (KIS) and less knowledge-intensive services (LKIS) based on the share of tertiary educated persons at NACE 2-digit level.
The sectoral approach is used for all indicators except data on high-tech trade and patents.

Sectoral classification


Products of agriculture, hunting and related services; Products of forestry, logging and related services; Fish and other fishing products; aquaculture products; support services to fishing; Mining and quarrying.

Nace Rev2 codes: A01 A02  A03  B

Low-technology manufacturing

Food products, beverages and tobacco products; Textiles, wearing apparel and leather products; Wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; articles of straw and plaiting materials; Paper and paper products; Printing and recording services; Furniture; other manufactured goods.

Nace Rev2 codes: C10-C12 C13-C15 C16 C17 C18 C31_C32

Medium-technology manufacturing

Coke and refined petroleum products; Rubber and plastics products; Other non-metallic mineral products; Basic metals; Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment; Repair and installation services of machinery and equipment.

Nace Rev2 codes: C19 C22 C23 C24 C25 C33

High-technology manufacturing

Basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations; Computer, electronic and optical products; Chemicals and chemical products; Electrical equipment; Machinery and equipment n.e.c.; Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers; Other transport equipment.

Nace Rev2 codes: C21 C26 C20 C27 C28 C29 C30

Knowledge intensive service sectors

Water transport services; Air transport services; Publishing services; Motion picture, video and television programme production services, sound recording and music publishing; programming and broadcasting services; Telecommunications services; Computer programming, consultancy and related services; information services; Financial services, except insurance and pension funding; Insurance, reinsurance and pension funding services, except compulsory social security; Services auxiliary to financial services and insurance services; Legal and accounting services; services of head offices; management consulting services; Architectural and engineering services; technical testing and analysis services; Scientific research and development services; Advertising and market research services; Other professional, scientific and technical services; veterinary services; Employment services; Security and investigation services; services to buildings and landscape; office administrative, office support and other business support services; Public administration and defense services; compulsory social security services; Education services; Human health services; Social work services; Creative, arts and entertainment services; library, archive, museum and other cultural services; gambling and betting services; Sporting services and amusement and recreation services.

Nace Rev2 codes: H50 H51 J58 J59_J60 J61 J62_J63 K64 K65 K66 M69_M70 M71 M72 M73 M74_M75 N78 N80-N82 O84 P85 Q86 Q87_Q88 R90-R92 R93

Other service sectors

Repair and installation services of machinery and equipment; Electricity, gas, steam and air-conditioning; Natural water; water treatment and supply services
Sewerage; waste collection, treatment and disposal activities; materials recovery; remediation activities and other waste management services; Constructions and construction works; Wholesale and retail trade and repair services of motor vehicles and motorcycles; Wholesale trade services, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles; Retail trade services, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles; Land transport services and transport services via pipelines; Warehousing and support services for transportation; Postal and courier services; Accommodation and food services; Real estate services (excluding imputed rent); Imputed rents of owner-occupied dwellings; Rental and leasing services; Travel agency, tour operator and other reservation services and related services; Services furnished by membership organizations; Repair services of computers and personal and household goods; Other personal services; Services of households as employers; undifferentiated goods and services produced by households for own use; Services provided by extraterritorial organizations and bodies.

Nace Rev2 codes: C33 D35 E36 E37-E39 F G45 G46 G47 H49 H52 H53 I L68B L68A N77 N79 S94 S95 S96 T U